Epidemiology and Clinical outcome of Low Birth Weight infants followed up over a 12 month period at the “Mère-Enfant” University Hospital Centre (UHC) of Libreville.
Keywords:Low Birth Weight, Clinical outcome, “Mère-enfant” UHC, Libreville-Gabon
Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) is a key indicator of newborn health and a global public health concern. The objective of this study was to contribute to improving the care of LBW. Subjects and methods: Cohort study conducted over a period of 18 months (January 2019 - July 2020) at the “Mère-Enfant” University Hospital Centre of Libreville. All newborns with a birth weight (BW) < 2500 g were included. Sociodemographic and clinical data of a mother- infant were studied.
Results: 1260/9035 births of LBW (14.0%) were observed, and 300 among them were included. The sex ratio was 1, with an average BW of 1908.6 ± 483.3 g, of which 79.3% accounted for low BW. The mean gestational age was 34 ± 12 with 75.3% due to prematurity. During the 1st year of life, the overall proportion of pathologies
encountered decreased with age and respiratory pathology was the main one observed in general. Re-hospitalization was observed in 16.3% of cases and the main reason was malaria (59.2%). The overall mortality rate was 27.0% and the risk factors for death included ; extreme low BW (OR
= 50.5 (95% CI [14.7; 173.4]; p<0.001)),
extremely preterm (OR 46.5 (95% CI [13.2; 163.1]; (p<0.001)), resuscitation at birth (OR 9.9 (95% CI [5.1, 19.5]; p<0.001)), male gender (OR
1.8 (95% CI [1.1 to 3.0]; p = 0.027)). The
predictor of death was perinatal asphyxia (OR 5.9 (95% CI,3.25, 10.5); p<0.001)).
Conclusion: LBW is a public health problem at the UHCME-JEF with harmful consequences. Many efforts remain to be done to reduce LBW levels and improve their survival.